Thursday, July 28, 2005

Clindamycin Is Primarily Bacteriostatic


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JULY 28th Clindamycin
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Ingest this antibiotic with whey powder mixed with orange juice and lactobacillus acidophilus. Open the capsule and pour the powder in this drink. From what I read this seems to be the best way to help the sensitive digestive tract without losing absorption of the Clindamycin.

BACKGROUND

Clindamycin can also be given parentally. Is primarily bacteriostatic and binds
to the 50S subunit of the ribosome, thus inhibiting bacterial protein
synthesis.
These drugs are active against aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, with
the exception of enterococci, and against gram-negative anaerobes.
Clindamycin has a spectrum similar to that of erythromycin, except that it has
poor activity against Mycoplasma. The major advantage of clindamycin over
erythromycin is its much greater activity against anaerobic bacteria,
especially Bacteroides sp (including B. fragilis). It also has activity against
toxoplasma and pneumocystis when used in combination with other drugs.
Clindamycin cannot be used in CNS infection because penetration into the brain
and CSF is poor.

The continuing fight against bacterial infections involves the development of
antibiotics capable of harming bacterial cells without damaging the patient’s
cells. Biological properties that bacteria do not share with animals have been
exploited so as to accomplish elimination of infection without affecting the
patient’s cells.

Clindamycin is an antibiotic of the “lincosamide” class and possesses similar
properties to its sister compound “lincomycin.” To understand how these
medications work, it is important to understand how proteins are made by cells.
The “blueprint” for any protein structure comes from the cell’s DNA. The
relevant area of DNA (which is double stranded) opens and is “transcribed” to
form a strand of “messenger RNA” which travels

from the cell nucleus outward to where a group of cell organs called
“ribosomes” can attach. The ribosomes “grab” the strand of messenger RNA and
link the appropriate amino acids (bound to the “tarnsfer RNA”) into the desired
protein (to see an animated depiction of both transcription and of protein
synthesis or “translation” click here. The page with the animation will open in
it’s own window, which you need only close when you are done). Fortunately,
animal ribosomes are nothing like bacterial ribosomes, which are readily
damaged by this class of antibiotic.

Depending on how much antibiotic is used, the bacterial cell may simply be
inhibited from reproducing or may be killed outright.

HOW THIS MEDICATION IS USED

The lincosamide antibiotics seem to be most useful against the bacteria
classified as Gram positive cocci (classified thus based on their shape and
cell wall properties). Clindamycin is also helpful against protozoans such as
Toxoplasma and Mycoplasma as well as many anaerobic (growing without oxygen)
bacteria.

The types of bacteria sensitive to clindamycin makes this drug especially
popular for use in oral and periodontal infections, skin infections, and bone
infections.

SIDE EFFECTS

Oral clindamycin is unpleasant tasting and may be rejected by some patients.

The only side effect of concern is upset stomach including diarrhea (which can
be bloody) and vomiting. If your pet develops an upset stomach on clindamycin,
please discontinue the medication and notify your veterinarian.

INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS

Erythromycin, another antibiotic, and clindamycin will be less effective in
combination than when used separately. There is some evidence that the same is
true when clindamycin is combined with chloramphenicol.

CONCERNS AND CAUTIONS

Oral clindamycin is absorbed into the body faster if given on an empty stomach.

Clindamycin will cross the placenta if used in pregnant patients. It will also
readily be transferred to nursing young and can induce diarrhea.

Dosage may require alteration in patients with kidney or liver disease. In
these cases, a different drug might be a better choice. If this is not
possible, it may be helpful to measure blood levels of clindamycin to be sure
they do not get too high.

Clindamycin is used orally in dosages of 150 to 450 mg q 6 h in adults and 10
to 30 mg/kg/day in 3 to 4 divided doses in children. The IM or IV dosage is 600
to 2700 mg/day in 3 to 4 equal doses in adults and 20 to 40 mg/kg/day in 3 or 4
equal doses in children.

Liver enzyme blood tests often elevate with the use of clindamycin. This is not
felt to be of health significance but is important to recognize when it is
seen.

The manufacturer has recommended blood tests of liver and kidney function if
use of clindamycin is to persist beyond 30 days.

Clindamycin may cause colitis, an infection of the colon that can be dangerous
and sometimes life-threatening. If you experience any of the following symptoms
while taking clindamycin or within a few weeks of stopping clindamycin, call
your doctor immediately: severe persistent diarrhea, severe stomach cramps, or
bloody stool. Talk to your doctor about the risk of taking clindamycin.

What are the possible side effects of clindamycin?
• Rare cases of severe, and sometimes fatal, diarrhea (called
pseudomembranous colitis) have occurred with the use of antibiotics, including
clindamycin. Contact your doctor immediately if you experience diarrhea during
or within several weeks following treatment with clindamycin.
• If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking
clindamycin and seek emergency medical attention:
· an allergic reaction (swelling of the lips, tongue, or face; shortness
of breath; closing of the throat; or hives);
· a rash;
· diarrhea;
· yellowing of the skin or eyes;
· abdominal pain; or
· little or no urine.
• Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to
take clindamycin and talk to your doctor if you experience
· nausea, vomiting, or decreased appetite;
· heartburn; or
· an unpleasant or metallic taste in the mouth.
• Side effects other than those listed here may also occur. Talk to your
doctor about any side effect that seems unusual or that is especially botherso


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29 July 2005

OK, days later as i saw-precog this event and here is the question.


*** Doctors were still trying to find a drug to treat the disease. They have so far been relying on heavy doses of antibiotics. ***
The World Health Organization has said it is the largest known outbreak of the disease in the region in recent years


How come those 31 people died and this antibiotic could have been given..what was given? Heavy Doses?? ??????

31 Die in China From Pig-Borne Disease


By AUDRA ANG, Associated Press Writer 57 minutes ago

The death toll from a pig-borne disease in southwestern China rose to 31 on Friday as health officials stepped up preventative measures and tried to reassure the public that the government had the outbreak under control.

The disease, blamed on the bacteria streptococcus suis, has swept through dozens of villages in Sichuan province since June, infecting farmers who handled or butchered sick pigs.

So far, 152 confirmed and suspected cases have been found, with 27 people hospitalized in critical condition, according to the Ministry of Health. Seven patients have been released from the hospital.

"The epidemic is at present under control," the official Xinhua News Agency said, citing Health Minister Gao Qiang, who arrived in Sichuan on Thursday to inspect the area.

Gao warned that precautions — including a ban on the killing, transporting and selling of sick pigs — still needed to be taken since the source of the outbreak had not been determined. No person-to-person transmissions have been reported.

Jiang Zhuhui, a farmer, said he and his family were "afraid when the disease began to spread" and stopped eating pork.

"But now, we know that the disease is not infectious between people. That reassures us," Jiang said in a telephone interview.

Symptoms of the disease include, fever, nausea, vomiting and bleeding under the skin.

The World Health Organization has said it is the largest known outbreak of the disease in the region in recent years.

Bob Dietz, a WHO spokesman in Manila, said the streptococcus bacteria can enter humans from under the cuticles, through an open wound or — in less common cases — through ingestion of improperly cooked meat from a sick pig. In the latest outbreak, it was possible that another virus or bacteria was causing the high rate of infection, he said.

"Our greatest concern in this situation remains the sheer numbers that we are seeing," Dietz said. "We remain wary of saying that there may not be some other cause and effect that are making these people sick.... We still cannot come up with a good explanation with why we are seeing such a high numbers."

China was criticized for being reluctant to release information during its outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, which emerged in the country's south and killed nearly 800 people around the world before subsiding in July 2003.

The outbreak of the pig-borne disease prompted fears that SARS had returned. China is also trying to contain an outbreak of bird flu in its northwest, where thousands of migratory birds have died.

At least 50,000 health workers have been sent to nearly 1.4 million farming households to register every pig in the region, the China Daily reported.

Officials in the city of Ziyang, where many farmers in surrounding areas have been infected, have issued more than 2 million posters urging farmers not to slaughter or eat sick pigs, the newspaper said.

Temporary roadside quarantine stations have also been set up to stop dead swine from being transported to markets, it said.

Additionally, four medical facilities in Ziyang, Neijiang, Zigong and Suining have been designated as treatment centers for farmers showing symptoms, the newspaper said.

"We are sparing no effort to make sure every patient is well treated," said an official from the Sichuan Provincial Health Bureau reached by telephone. He refused to give his name.

Meanwhile, Beijing has stopped taking pigs and pork products from Sichuan, the Beijing Evening News reported.

Doctors were still trying to find a drug to treat the disease. They have so far been relying on heavy doses of antibiotics.

Xinhua and the China Daily said a company in southern Guangdong province has developed vaccines for pigs and humans and would be distributing them soon.

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UPDATE
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Infections from China pig disease jump to 152

Thu Jul 28,10:40 PM ET

The number of people infected by what Chinese authorities believe is a pig-borne disease in Sichuan province has risen by 21 to 152, the Hong Kong Health Department said, citing information from the mainland government.

Concern in Hong Kong grew on Friday after the city's government said that a local man had recently contracted the same disease. The city of nearly seven million people on China's southern coast gets most of its food from the mainland.

The 26-year-old interior decorator infected with Streptococcus suis had not been to China recently and had no contact with pigs or raw pork, the government said in a statement late on Thursday.

He was admitted to hospital on July 5 and discharged on July 12. Authorities are investigating how he contracted the disease.

Nine other people in Hong Kong have also contracted the same disease since May last year.

Chinese officials have insisted that the outbreak could be controlled and agreed to a Hong Kong government request to send a team of experts to Sichuan province to join the investigation.

China's Minister of Health Gao Qiang arrived in Sichuan on Thursday to inspect the prevention and control of the pig-borne epidemic, the official Xinhua news agency said.

Authorities in Sichuan suspended exports of chilled and frozen pork to Hong Kong earlier this week as a precaution, but the city's government has insisted there is still no evidence to support a ban on pork imports from the region, angering many legislators.

The victims in China were infected with the bacteria from slaughtering, handling or eating infected pigs, authorities have said.

The official Xinhua news agency said that 31 people had died from the disease while another 27 were in critical condition.

The World Health Organization (WHO) said that clinical diagnosis of the disease in Sichuan seems to be consistent with past outbreaks, but admitted it was puzzled by the high number of people falling ill.

Streptococcus suis, known in layman's terms as swine flu, is endemic in swine in most pig-rearing countries in the world but human infections have been relatively rare.

Although China's state media has said no human-to-human infections have been found in Sichuan, the death toll is considered unusually high.

The disease is not known to have ever been passed between humans, but scientists fear it could mutate into a strain that could easily pass among people. Compounded with its deadliness, such a bug could unleash an epidemic, killing many people.

The high mortality rate and reports that many of the victims died within 24 hours of showing symptoms have led some experts to wonder if it is swine flu at all.

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UPDATE: 30 July 2005
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China's Ministry of Health said 174 people had been infected by the disease, 28 of them in critical condition.
Authorities say victims were suffering from Streptococcus suis bacteria, or swine flu,

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an infection contracted from

slaughtering, handling or eating infected pigs.

like I said....what is AN INFECTION
i ponder


realeyes links

The BUG

Piggy SPLAT! NEWZ


check this out: TOXIN IS:
Key words: membrane vesicles, virulence factors, Burkholderia cepacia, genomovar.



TiZ Theeeee beginning of the END-TIMEs ........The fires of infection

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